FROM PADDY TO DISH
School of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment
Master degree in ITALIAN FOOD AND WINE
Course: FOOD AND WINE HISTORY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIETY 2020-2021
THE RICE CULTIVATION IN THE WORLD
The first recorded mention of rice production comes from China in 2800 B.C., but archaeological excavations find rice in India as far back as 4530 B.C. By 500 B.C., rice was being cultivated throughout Asia, and transported thereafter to certain regions of Europe.
By the 1600s, rice was being cultivated in the Americas.
Traditionally, fields carefully prepped, plowed, and divided into paddies.
Seeds were introduced into dry fields in anticipation of rain. This flooding meant that little fertilization was required , but pests were a major issue, and traditionally, some cultures relied on incantations, astrology, and specific symbols to ward off pests as well. Farmers shared irrigation and harvesting duties, which reduced costs and provided a sense of mutual ownership.
Archaeologists excavating in India discovered rice, which they were convinced, could be dated to 4530 B.C. However, the first recorded mention originates from China in 2800 B.C. Around 500 B.C. cultivation spread to parts of India, Iran, Iraq, Egypt and eventually to Japan.
Although China, India or Thailand cannot be identified as the home of the rice plant (indeed it may have been native to all), it is relatively clear that rice was introduced to Europe and the Americas, by travelers who took with them the seeds of the crops that grew in their homes and in foreign lands.
In the West, parts of America and certain regions of Europe, such as Italy and Spain, are able to provide the correct climate thereby giving rise to a thriving rice industry.
The first cultivation in the U.S., along coastal regions from S. Carolina to Texas, started in 1685. Some historians believe that rice travelled to America in 1694, in a British ship bound for Madagascar.
TRADITIONAL CULTIVATION METHODS
The different stages of cultivation (land preparation, planting and flooding, weeding, and rice harvest) over 180 days between March and October, also required a lot of manpower. Above all, the manual removal of weeds and harvest, until the fifties brought into paddy fields 260-280 thousand people in late spring and autumn.
The practice of transplantation in order to exploit the soil with other crops, then abandoned, required highly skilled workers and in great numbers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth-century social conditions and remuneration of rice-weeders, and laborers determined strong social conflicts that were resolved in 1906 with the first collective agreements based on the eight-hour workday.
In the same year appeared the first machines to mechanize the various cultivation practices, and we have to wait until 1952 for the experimental introduction of chemical herbicides which will spread by 1957 and make a decisive impact in rice fields since the early sixties.
Traditional rice cultivation
SUSTAINABILITY IN RICE CULTIVATION METHODS
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops in the world.
Demand for rice is growing all over the world and as an instance, it is estimated that by 2025 AD the requirement of only India would be 140 million tonnes.
In Asia, more than two billion people are getting 60-70 percent of their energy requirement from rice and its derived products. In India, rice occupies an area of 44 million hectares with an average production of 90 million tonnes at productivity of 2.0 tonnes per hectare.
In Asia, nearly 60% of the 138 million hectares devoted to rice production annually is irrigated, where rice is often grown in monoculture with two to three crops a year depending upon water availability.
Benefits of Sustainable Production of Rice Cultivation
- Reduction in seed requirement 65-75%;
- Water requirement 35-45%reduction;
- Fertilizer requirement No
- Yield 25-30% increased;
- Pest and disease management less;
- Soil health sustained improvement
Techniques for Sustainable Production of Rice
- Direct seeded rice (DSR): Rice can be directly seeded either through dry or wet (pre germinated) seeding.
- Crop residue management: Crop residues are good sources of plant nutrients, are the primary source of organic material added to the soil
- Laser Land levelling: A resource management technique by process of land smothering and uniform distribution of materials e.g water.
- Brown manuring: Green manuring is not picking up by the farmers due to scarcity of water.
Resource Conserving Techniques (RCTs) are more effective in combinations rather than their individual application. SRI methods of rice cultivation is an efficient natural resources utilization and are some solutions for enhancing the production, productivity and environmental sustainability.
Average annual rice production, area harvested, and yield in most important
|Country or region||Production (million tons) *||Area harvested (Million ha)||Yield (t/ha)|
|Other Asian countries||35.8||10.9||3.3|
THE RICE CULTIVATION METHODS IN ITALY
Italian rice fields are located in a large plain, Pianura Padana, equidistant from the Alps and the Mediterranean Sea. In the summer, when water melts from the Alps glaciers, covering the fields, these expenses almost look like an immense mirror. The water is stocked there for a few months, from April to September, thanks to artificially constructed embankments. Once the rice fields have been flooded and rice has grown, the water is then released and returns to the sea.
1. Traditional rice cultivation method / Natural Production
In the last century, Italian rice farmers have honed their techniques to increase production and save resources. For example, until the 1960s, about 50% of rice crops were transplanted meaning that rice seeds were activated in a nursery, and once the plants reached a suitable age for uprooting, they were removed and planted in the fields. They began to grow rice in a natural way reducing to zero pesticides and herbicides. The natural production is aimed to use as much as possible energy coming directly from nature. Weeds are removed by hand and when harvested, rice grains are dried using sun heat.The drawback is that crop is reduced to 50% or less, increasing thus the price per kilo.Because of the large amount of manual work, only about one hectare can be cultivated usingthis method.
2. Modern cultivation/ Now day
Farmers plant directly in the field, saving time and labor; transplantation is only performed as corrective work in small portions of land, and some farmers have been experimenting with mechanical transplant in their crops. In countries like China, however, this technique is still the most adopted. However, the introduction of new technologies has allowed Italian farmers to maintain the health of each plant regardless of weather, pests, and soil quality, making this tedious practice obsolete. Ente Risi is leading the way in the implementation of precision technology to ensure farmers apply the exact dose of fertilizer to each small plot of land.
Steps involved in modern rice cultivation
1. Field preparation
As soon as the winter frost cease, fields are ploughed. Ploughs are used in farming for the initial preparation and cultivation of soil to make it ready for sowing seed. Ploughing also aerates the soil so that it can hold in moisture more effectively. Some nitrogen-rich organic fertilizer is sometimes added before ploughing.
A harrow is used after ploughing to breaks up loose clods and lumps to give a finer finish.Harrows give good soil structure that is suitable for planting and seeding. Harrow is also used for removing early weeds.
fields are carefully levelled with precision, laser-guided grading equipment. More level and smooth soil surface reduce time and water required to irrigate the fields. Rice will grow in amore uniform moisture environment with a uniform germination reducing in seeds,fertilizer, chemicals and fuel.
Water is run into the fields to a depth of only 10-15 cm. Water has been shown to improve the rice plants’ ability to compete against weeds for nutrients and sunlight, reducing the need for herbicides
Rice seed is then soaked sowed. The heavy seeds sink and begin to grow after a few days.Fertilizer spreaders are used to saw rice and apply fertilizer easily. Using this machinery must be done carefully and accurately. It is important to make sure that you lay the right amounts of seeds and fertilizer
6. Pests and Weeds control
One to two applications of herbicides are applied to control weeds early in the growing cycle. If necessary, fields are treated for pests. Early application ensures uncontaminated rice at harvest.
By August, the grain begins to appear in long panicles on the top of the plant. By September,the grain is ripe and ready to be harvested. Before rice harvest can begin, the fields must be drained.
Tractors come alongside, receiving the rice and delivering it to the farm.
Rice is then carefully dried to an ideal moisture level and stored until the customer places an order. Rice is drying 22-24% of water to 13%. This step is critical because if the decreasing rate of moisture is too high the grains will break
10. Milling & Storage
At the mill, the hull is first removed, leaving brown rice. White rice is the result of gently removing the bran layers to leave just the inner, pearly grain.
- Reyneri Amedeo et al. (?) “I Sistemi Colturali Basati sulla Coltivazione del Riso”. Accessed 01 July 2019.
- Zhang Minghua et al. “Review of Precision Rice Hill-Drop Drilling Technology and Machine for Paddy”. Accessed 20 June.
THE RICE PRODUCTION IN THE WORLD
Rice is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production after sugarcane and maize (1). Rice is grown in more than a hundred countries, with a total harvested area of approximately 158 million hectares, producing more than 700 million tons annually (470 million tons of milled rice) (2).
Developing countries make up 95% of the world’s production of rice, with China and India producing 49% and Indonesia, Bangladesh and Vietnam producing 22% of the world’s total production of rice.
The majority of rice farms are small, having less than 1 hectare of production. Due to poor infrastructure, as much as 40% of rice production in developing countries is lost due to poor roads and infrastructure – this lost rice could feed hundreds of millions of people (1). Nearly 100 million people depend on the production of rice to provide them with rice to eat as their daily staple food (2).
Soil health is important for rice production and there is emerging research on the effects of cadmium pollution in China and its effect on human health (3).
There are thousands of varieties of rice all over the world, and they can be split up into different types; for example: short grain (sticky rice from China, Japan and Korea), risotto rice (Italy, Spain) long grain (basmati and jasmine from southeast Asia) and different colors (green, black, red) (2).
- Wikipedia, Rice, accessed 02-11-2020
- Ricepedia.org, accessed 02-11-2020
- A review of soil cadmium contamination in China including a health risk. Assessment [September 2015 Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(21)]
THE RICE PRODUCTION IN ITALY
According to the latest FAO estimates, the world production of rice is around 755 million tons in 2019. Italy is a leading country in the European production (52%) with four thousands farm and a hundred of rice mills that transform paddy into processed rice, for a total production that can reach 900 thousand tons every year, of which about half is exported to European Union thanks to the new focus on the quality of the most suitable types of risotto. In Italy there are 217 thousand of hectares cultivated by rice, 92% of which are located between Lombardy and Piedmont. The remaining 8% is divided between Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Sardinia and small areas in Tuscany, Calabria and Sicily. The Italian rice with more of 200 varieties is a unique in richness in the world, linked to the nutrition, society and production history of this country in a context of a great commercial competition (Morosi M., 2019). Since 2017, Italian law provided for the establishment of the so-called traditional varieties, namely Carnaroli, Arborio, Roma/Balbo, Ribe, Vialone Nano and Sant’Andrea. For the rice belonging to these varieties, the name of the product must coincide with the name of the variety used or with similar varieties registered that have passed a careful examination and are included in a special register held by the National Rice Authority (Mirandola M, 2019).
Italy is considered as the largest rice producer in Europe which has a long history that started centuries ago. Since then, the methods of production and management of rice farms has changed to a great extent. To find out about modern rice farming in Italy, we interviewed Michele Conte of La Fagiana. Michele Conte, who is the son of the director of this farm, with his master degree of italian food and wine of Padova University, now is bringing ne thoughts to this italian traditional farm.
Many rice producing farms sell their produce to big companies to transform and sell it at relatively low prices. Another way is the transformation and sale in the own company so every step from growing to selling is in one firm’s hand. Michele explains why this is done at their farm.
It is really important to promote a high quality product with appropriate information to make people buy it.
With an aim to promote transparency they invite people by posting on Facebook to see the harvesting and other activities at the farm with intentions to create an understanding of the value of the product. In addition to this, they conduct various guided tours with show-cooking and tasting of tasty risottos and local agricultural products, all accompanied by wine, craft beers, and apple juice. These activities have been found useful in order to establish a strong relationship between the brand and consumers.
Technical aspects of rice production
Pests and deseases
Environmenal impact of the production
Environmenal impact of the production
Health emergency and effects on direct sales
THE RICE MARKET IN THE WORLD
Rice is the one most consumed cereal grain globally by being consumed by more than half of the world’s populations and with more than 700 million metric tons produced annually at a global level. Rice is the second-most important cereal crop after maize in the world. As the consumption of this cereal is high, the growth of the rice market is expected to increase. Most of the rice is grown and consumed in the Asian region, from Pakistan in the west to Japan in the east.
The world’s largest rice producers in 2018 were China and India. In Europe, Italy is the main producer of rice with a 4% increase in exports in 2019 for a value of almost 550 million euros. One of the fastest-growing rice exporters since 2015 are: China (up 296%), Netherlands (up 75.7%), Paraguay (up 74.6%) and Cambodia (up 51.1%) and the biggest importers are: Iran (7.5%) of total rice imports, Saudi Arabia (6.5%), China (up to 5.7%) and United States (5%). Among the major producers in South America, Brazil is the only country that both exports and imports rice.
Due to the current pandemic, changes in rice availability and prices have caused social unrest in several countries, the production must rise faster than before to stabilize the price to an affordable level for the consumers. Even that, the current situation reflects that in China, both single-season and late-season rice are being harvested. In India, harvest is starting for Kharif rice in the northern states. In Southeast Asia, conditions are beneficial for both wet-season rice in the northern countries and dry-season rice in Indonesia.
Agricultural Market Information System. (2020). AMIS Market Monitor October 2020. 82 (1-16).
Rice Exports by Country. (2020). Daniel Workman.
Rice: World Markets and Trade. (2018) Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA.
FAO Rice market monitor (RMM). (2018)
THE RICE MARKET IN ITALY
Italy is the most important rice producer of the European Union: more than 50% of the european production takes place in this mediterranean country.
In 2019-2020, exportations from Italy reached an amount of 12.953 tons of rice: the main destinations are Turkey and Switzerland.
In the same two years period, about 11,987 tons of rice were imported in Italy, mostly from Southern-Asian countries (Pakistan, Thailand and India).
THE RICE CONSUMPTION IN THE WORLD
Global consumption of rice has seen a slight increase over the last several years. In the 2019/2020 crop year, about 493 million metric tons of rice were consumed worldwide. From which, countries in Asia have the largest share both in consumption and cultivation, China is the largest paddy rice producer and followed by India.
Rice is the most important staple food in the developing world, rich in nutrients and vitamins and minerals, it includes huge carbohydrates.
THE RICE CONSUMPTION IN ITALY
Interview with Carla Conte at the “Agriturismo La Fagiana”
We interviewed Carla Conte, a worker at La Fagiana, who is responsible for packaging, selling and cooking domestically the rice produced at the farm. She shared some traditional recipes and the importance that rice has in her and her family´s life. She explained how healthy cooking has taken a central role in recent years and the importance of consuming local products.
Carla´s husband is the farm director while she and other three women are responsible for the packaging and selling of the product. In the field there are four men and in the shop and the transformation we have the women. Even though Carla´s job focuses on the costumer service, she is able to drive a tractor and do all the field related work that man do, since she grew up on a farm herself.
My husband cultivates the rice and in my family we are passionate rice eaters. We can even eat rice four times a week. The rice can be made in different ways; I have made it even with strawberries and oranges. And also with more traditional ingredients like mushrooms and pumpkin. The rice is versatile and can be made in a variety of recipes
Tradition an innovation in cooking risotto: local products, intergenerational transmission of recipes and fantasy.
The importance of the selling moment: building relationship and trust between producers and consumers.
HOW TO PREPARE A REAL ITALIAN RISOTTO
On 8th October 2020, at Eraclea (VE), we interviewed Michael Gambino, a 23 year-old professional cook.
Michael studied in ‘Lepido Rocco’ institute, a vocational school for professional cooks, located in Caorle (VE). Since he was a child, he developed the love for cooking; this strong passion led him into the working world as soon as he finished his studies.
Nowadays Michael works at ‘Agriturismo Coda di Gatto’, a Venetian farmhouse.
Today he is in ‘La Fagiana’ farm to answer our questions while preparing risotto for us.
SETTING THE DISH: WAYS OF PROVISIONING AND CHOOSING THE INGREDIENTS
Recipe by María Antoniotti Gómez
For this dish is used a whole short grain white rice that needs to burst open when cooking. This rice is widely grown in Tolima and Huila. The vegetables and legumes needed are carrots, French beans, eggplant, aji topito, potatoes and capers which are the Mediterranean touch of this rice. It has bacon, pork ribs and chicken cut into pieces. The seasoning ingredients are aji, salt, pepper and achiote that is the same annatto, a Pre- Columbian ingredient, a natural food colouring widely used in the food industry, as it is non-toxic at all. It is served there a portion of rice, some stew, meat and some capers. It is wrapped joining the tips of the bijao leaves, like forming a package, ant this package or “tamal” is tied up with a “cabuya” which is a natural fibre, also Pre-Columbian, used by the native people to the current times in order to tie up the food that is going to be cooked. My mum uses bell pepper instead of aji topito and she replaces the bijao leaves for chisgua ones, due to it being difficult to get these ingredients in the region. She prefers not to add eggplant because this neutralizes the flavours. This modification demonstrates the change in the culinary habits according to the geographical zone, the tastes, and the tradition.
Recipe by Roodabeh Derakhshanian
Knowing about the origin of these ingredients, shrimp, which is expensive in Iran, is from Persian Gulf. Rice is originated from the north part of Iran that is a very famous region of producing it, it’s price is not very high but it is much higher than imported rice in Iran from other countries like India. The other ingredient is tamarind that is imported from India and is not very expensive and it is affordable for almost everyone. Vegetables used in this recipe are found everywhere in Iran and they are easily accessible in all food markets in a low price.
Recipe by Mai Nguyen
Rice has become a staple food on the table of several countries all over the world including
Vietnam. Vietnamese fried rice (Cơm rang), basically, can be made with almost everything.
One of the most interesting details of this recipe is that we can make use of leftover rice and other ingredients from the previous meal to avoid wastage. The reason why this fried rice recipe was chosen because it is very simple, not time-consuming but is absolutely delicious and nutritious.
Recipe by Saade Rouade
Preparation of this dish haven’t changed much with time, it is traditional but some people add or eliminate some minor ingredients with regards to accessibility and cost of ingredients like quantity of chicken, meat and nuts that enrich the dish. When asked about the ingredients purchase during her stay abroad, she answered that she usually buys from local markets that she considers being fresher, but she also buys imported products for specialized and special ingredients that she needs for her traditional recipes and which she’s unable to find in some local markets. She is willing to pay additional premium for sustainable, organic or imported products. What’s important for her is “quality food” she added.
Recipe by Pradhumn Doke
A spicy, delicious Soya Pulao is an Indian weeknight dinner table favorite, and it comes
together quickly with pantry ingredients. Kids love it too! Gluten-free and nut-free recipe. Long before soy products like tofu and soy milk made an appearance in India, there were soya nuggets or soya chunks.
WAYS OF COOKING RICE: DIFFERENCES AND INFLUENCES
Recipe by Siavash Chahibakhsh
Adas Polow, Adas is the Persian word for Lentils and polo is the Persian translation of rice, is a delicious Persian rice dish, one of the traditional and known members in the Polow family in Iranian cuisine and one of the popular dishes in this country.
Changes over time
- It was more common to add dates to other materials in the past. People used to halve the dates and remove the stones. Fry the dates in the remaining oil for about 1 minute and then mix it with onions, raisins, etc. Older generation still do this.
- Adas polow was also being cooked in some religious rituals in the past, in which they sacrifice the ship or camel and then use the meat to cook this delicious dish and distribute it in less-privileged neighborhoods.
- People used to use chopped meat instead of the ground one; perhaps due to lack of proper equipment.
- Depending on the region and the type of meat that was more common there, it could contain chicken, turkey, beef or even camel, but mostly it has been cooked with the usual red meet.
Recipe by Yogesh Kumar
Biryani is derived from the Persian word Birian, which means ‘fried before cooking’ and Biryani, the Persian word for rice
Biryani is a mixed rice dish with its origins among of the Indian subcontinent. It is made with Indian spices, rice, and meat, and sometimes, also, eggs and/or potatoes in certain regional varieties. Biryani is popular throughout the Indian subcontinent, as well as among its diaspora. It is also prepared in other regions such as Iraqi Kurdistan. It is a dish that has acquired a niche for itself in South Asian cuisine.
Recipe by Ana Avila
This is a recipe that comes from colonial times, it is one of the most typical and well-known recipes throughout the country, the typical dish or insignia of the coast is accompanied by rice with beans and coconut milk. The Garifuna are one of our largest ethnic groups in the country and their culture is very present in Honduran gastronomy. This recipe goes through the generations and through the social strata since it is something that is typical of our culture.
Recipe by Karina Gazetdinova
“Rice porridge” is a very typical dish of Russian Cuisine. It gained particular popularity due to the consequences of the famine of Leningrad. After WW2 food production was disrupted resulting in low availability of food, nearly all the people were malnourished and needed a simple aﬀordable dish to regain the energy. It was the time of economical and social disruption due to the consequences of war. It was hard to enjoy the food after such events, therefore food was mostly viewed as the “fuel” for work. Over time rice porridge has become just another alternative of a healthy breakfast and is no longer viewed as something “cheap”. Nowadays, you could order it in any cafe for a breakfast deal or cook it at home, however, there is no need anymore to “keep it simple” when we have such a great availability of products, now it can be topped not only with dry but also with fresh fruits, chocolate or cream can be added to make it more enjoyable.
Recipe by Daria Velizhantseva
Rice baba is not a traditional Russian dish, but rather a native Ukraine’s, where Irina spent her childhood. For her, this dish is a link connecting her with childhood. She passed on her love for this dish to her children.The dish is ridiculously simple to prepare absolutely anyone can cook it without any culinary training. Nowadays, of course, it is much easier to cook. With the advent of non-stick pans, there is no need to be afraid that the porridge will burn. And when the first multicooker appeared, you don’t even need to follow the preparation, set the mode and that’s it. Rice baba is very rich in elements: vitamins B, E, H, PP, manganese, potassium, phosphorus, iron, calcium, zinc and even selenium. It is also called beauty porridge: its regular use improves the condition of the skin, hair and nails.
Recipe by Amber Collins
Her recipe above showcases these international origins, using products such as red rice and spices such as paprika . These spices and foodstuff are a natural evolution of international trade, mixing old Irish recipes with traditional European/eastern cooking . The old with the new creates more unusual flavors and ideas which are passed down from generation to generation .
TRADITIONAL WAYS OF SERVING AND EATING…NOT ONLY RICE
Recipe by Sahar Gorgani
Time passed. Persians kept the holy meaning of cooking Halim, but they also added a new sense to it. Halim was served warm, and it counted as breakfast. So in the long cold nights of winter, the people of Jabs (a city in the middle of Iran) cooked this food throughout the night. They served it as a hot breakfast to their family members, warming them up for the cold day ahead. They did this for the entire season.
Recipe by Nareh Issayan
They used to eat this food at family gatherings and it was a meal that you could invite your friends and family to having a breakfast together at 5 in the morning. There are few changes from the past that you could eat with meat and nowadays there is a new way to make without meat like a simple porridge for vegetarian people. One other difference is in the time of making it: in the past there were not wheat flakes so people had to cook the wheat seeds and Harissa had to be cooked for 3 or 4 hours but nowadays that we have flakes the cooking time reduced to 1 hour and half.
Recipe by Shuyao Ming
Usually, we eat together, I think dumplings are always associated with my family members. Often, during festivals, my family will gather around a table to eat dumplings. […] Eating New Year’s Eve dinner is the most lively and happy time for every family in the Spring Festival. On the night of Chinese New Year’s Eve, a table full of rich new year’s dishes is arranged. The whole family gets together and sits around the table for a reunion dinner. People not only enjoy the delicious food, but also enjoy the happy atmosphere. There are many kinds of delicious dishes on the table, but generally there are two essential things, one is dumplings, the other is fish. Dumplings are the main course of the new year’s Eve dinner.
Recipe by Alexandra Miruna Leach
This traditional dish is a poor and fatty preparation, consumed by rich and poor people, all over Romanian regions; but is commonly served at special events such as weddings, Christmas or baptism parties. Especially during special events is usually to be served as a first dish accompanied by “Mamaliga” the polenta maize, or sour cream and bread, it depends on your own preference. It’s a way to involve people to eat something while enjoying it together. Usually sarmale is accompanied by a glass of red wine or plain water. It is also traditional, to have before a meal a shot of homemade plum brandy “Tuica de prune” before this kind of meal, to enjoy it better.
Recipe by Naveen Kumar Sellappillai
When cooked properly it has more than 24 hours Good quality. Many people pack it for road or train journeys as the dish keeps Good for long hours due to the addition of turmeric.
Recipe by Tarik Goyal
Rice has become a staple food on the table of several countries all over the world including INDIA. Undoubtedly, Idli is one of the most popular recipes in south India. Fermentation of rice and black lentils gives this recipe a unique taste. South Indian families enjoy this dish on every occasion. It is the most demanded dish at their [of the interviewee, ndr] restaurant especially during family gatherings. Also, at home people enjoy eating this during breakfast and as a evening snack.
Recipe by Maria Hernandez
Talking about when is the ideal time to eat it, she immediately answered that any time if it is together with Enchiladas, her favorite dish, in a more serious tone Hildelisa states that lunchtime will be the ideal moment for its consumption, maybe three times per week. It is important to emphasize that in the context of Mexican cuisine this rice preparation is not a protagonist, is more a companion of the main dish, gives a break to the commensal from the spicy and hot food, helping to balance the entire flavor profile of the meal.
Recipe by Danara Narmaeva)
-500g of ground beef
-1/2 cup rice, partially cooked (about 1 1/2 cup cooked rice)
-3-4 tablespoons ketchup or one pureed tomato
-1 onion, finely chopped
-1 medium sized head of cabbage.
Place minced meat, rice, onion, ketchup, salt and pepper in a bowl and mix well. If it is dry, add a few tablespoons of water. Do not stir for a long time and do not crease the minced meat too much, as from a long stirring it will be too dense after stewing.
-1 can tomatoes (16 oz), pureed
-2-3 tablespoons sour cream (optional)
– Fry the onion until golden brown.
-Finely chop the tomatoes or puree in a food processor / blender and pour over the onion.
-Add salt, pepper, stir well, cover and simmer for 5-10 minutes over low heat. If using, add sour cream.
– Boil water in a large saucepan.
– Cut off the lower part of the head of cabbage. – Put in boiling water with a cut at the top and separate the leaves with two forks.
– Boil the leaves for 2-3 minutes. The leaves should just soften, but you don’t need to boil them completely.
– Remove from water.
– Once the rolls are ready, place them into a heavy pan (cast iron works best) very tightly together. —- Pour sauce over the rolls and then add water so that the rolls are covered.
– Cover tightly and simmer for about an hour. Serve with sour cream.
Recipe by Nwadinobi Amaka
INGREDIENTS (for 25kg of rice)
- 2 Kilo of fresh tomatoes and 2200gms of tin tomato.
- 1/2 kilo of pepper
- 11/2 kilo of onion medium sized
- 2 liters of groundnut oil
- 150 gm of salt to taste
- 4 teaspoon of curry powder
- 1/4 kilo of ginger
- 30 pieces of magi cube
- 21/2 kilo of chicken or beer meat
- Water, as needed
- Blend your tomatoes, red pepper, scotch bonnet peppers in a food processor or blender for about 45 seconds, make sure that everything is blended well.
- In a medium sized pot, heat your oil on medium-high heat. Once the oil is heated add the onions you set aside and fry just until they turn golden brown. Once the onions, have turned brown in color add the tomato paste and fry for 2-3 minutes. Then add the blended tomato mixture (reserve about 1/4 cup and set aside) and fry the mixture with the onions and tomato paste for about 30 minutes. Make sure you stir consistently so that the tomato mixture does not burn.
- After 30 minutes, turn the heat down to medium, and add the chicken stock. Mix and add your seasonings (salt, curry powder, all purpose seasoning, and the Knorr stock cube). Continue to boil for 10 minutes.
- Add the parboiled rice** to the pot. Mix it very well with the tomato stew. At this point if you need to add water so that the rice is level with the tomato mixture/chicken stock go ahead and do so. Add the bay leaves, cover the pot, and cook on medium to low heat for 15-30 minutes.
- When the liquid has almost dried up add the remaining tomato stew**, cover, and let it cook for another 5-10 minutes heat until the liquid has completely dried up. Turn off the heat, mix thoroughly, and your Jollof Rice is ready to be eaten!
Recipe by Fernando Sanira
- 500g Basmati Rice
- 700ml water
- 200g pork, 1/2-inch dices
- 200g chicken, 1/2-inch dices
- 20g Astra
- 2 Knorr Chicken Cubes
- 100g tomatoes, diced
- 2 tablespoons curry leaves, chopped
- 50g onion, chopped
- 25g garlic, chopped
- ½ cup spring onions leaves, sliced
- 2 tablespoons black and white sesame
- Salt and pepper to taste
- Wash and drain the rice. Then heat up a pan with Astra and sauté the onion, garlic and curry leaves. Add rice and sauté for a few more minutes. After add diced pork and chicken.
- Add water and the Knorr Chicken Cubes. Bring to boil and simmer for 15 minutes while the lid is on. Switch off the fire and leave it for another 10 to 15 minutes while keeping the lid on.
- Then lift off the lid, add tomatoes and stir with the handle of a wooden spoon. Sprinkle sesame seeds on top and garnish with spring onions. Serve hot.
“This chicken and braised pork delicacy will not disappoint you” Cut all the meat in uniform size to cook evenly.
Recipe by Caterina Fagan
Ingredients for 4 persons:
1 celery stalk
250 g tastasale
2 cups of Vialone Nano rice from Grumolo delle Abbadesse
1 glass of table white wine
1/2 liter of meat broth
Make the soffritto with onion, carrot, celery and olive oil. Add tastasale, add the rice and “sfumare” with white wine and add slowly the broth till the rice is correctly cooked “al dente”. Remove pot from the ﬁre, add a little bit of butter and Grana Padano cheese, then mesh.
Nutritional values: 429 Cal /portion.
Consumption: With family everyday or friends/ guests on special occasions.
Beverage matching: Red Veneto wines, like Cabernet or Tai.
Ho bisogno di conoscere la storia di un alimento. Devo sapere da dove viene. Devo immaginarmi le mani che hanno coltivato, lavorato e cotto ciò che mangio.
School of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment
Master degree in ITALIAN FOOD AND WINE
Course: FOOD AND WINE HISTORY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIETY 2020-2021
Elisabetta Novello and Giulia Storato
Thanks to Agriturismo ‘La Fagiana’ for the great hospitality and cooperation
Veronica Di Nuzzo
Amber Coen Collins
Naveen Kumar Sellappillai
Maria Guadalupe Hernandez Coronado
Ana Avila Shuyao Ming
Alexandra M. Leach